Understanding Aspects about Dim Light Melatonin Onset (DLMO

Dim Light Melatonin Onset (DLMO) is of indispensable significance for both conclusion and treatment of circadian cadence issue. A considerable number of studies have demonstrated that, inside this musical profile, the onset of melatonin discharge under dim light conditions (the dim light melatonin onset or DLMO) is the absolute most precise marker for evaluating the circadian pacemaker. Furthermore, melatonin onset has been utilized clinically to assess issues identified with the onset or balance of rest. DLMO is helpful for deciding if an individual is entrained (synchronized) to a 24-h light/dim (LD) cycle or is in a free-running state.

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DLMO is additionally helpful for evaluating stage postponements or advances of rhythms in entrained people. Moreover, it has turned into a critical device for mental conclusion, its utilization being suggested for stage writing in patients experiencing rest and state of mind issue. All the more as of late, DLMO has additionally been utilized to survey the chronobiological highlights of occasional emotional issue (SAD). DLMO marker is likewise valuable for recognizing ideal application times for treatments, for example, brilliant light or exogenous melatonin treatment.

DLMO is generally characterized as the time at which salivary melatonin achieves 4 pg/ml (or when blood melatonin achieves 10 pg/ml). DLMO is considered as the best clinically helpful normal for the 24 hour melatonin musicality 1


Endogenous melatonin, a hormone created by the pineal organ amid the dim period of the day-night cycle, synchronizes circadian rhythms, particularly the rest wake mood. Its emission is controlled by an endogenous oscillator that is entrained by light. At the point when endogenous melatonin begins to rise late, rest wake mood is postponed. At the point when endogenous melatonin begins to rise early, rest wake musicality is progressed. At the point when melatonin onset varies, more often than not rest wake musicality vacillates excessively 2.

The period of the melatonin mood is somewhat more than 24 h. Light entrains the melatonin mood to a 24-h cadence. Thusly absolutely daze individuals may have a free running melatonin and rest wake cadence.

Melatonin beat connects emphatically with circadian rhythms. Consequently DLMO is the most helpful parameter to set up circadian musicality issue.


Both melatonin and splendid light may move endogenous melatonin musicality and thusly rest wake mood. The season of the course of the move depends of the time at which these intercessions are connected.

Exogenous melatonin, regulated 5 hours before Dim Light Melatonin Onset  progresses endogenous melatonin beat (and therefore rest wake cadence) generally intensely. Melatonin directed 10 hours after DLMO postpones endogenous melatonin beat (and thus rest wake mood) generally capably.

Splendid light, regulated amid the upward melatonin bend postpones melatonin musicality (and therefore rest wake mood). Brilliant light managed amid the descending melatonin bend propels melatonin beat and thusly rest wake musicality.


Subsequently Dim Light Melatonin Onset  is of fundamental significance for ideal treatment of circadian cadence issue with brilliant light and melatonin.

The circadian mood of melatonin in spit or plasma, or of the melatonin metabolite 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6S) in pee, is a characterizing highlight of suprachiasmatic core (SCN) work, the endogenous oscillatory pacemaker.



Reasons for Bacterial Overgrowth breath test

Ordinarily, small measures of microscopic organisms are found in the small digestive system. Every so often, extra microscopic organisms relocate from the digestive organ into the small digestive tract, making manifestations, for example, stomach torment, swelling, gas, and lose bowels. As the side effects are fundamentally the same as those related to IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome), information from this test may help doctors in assessing IBS cases.


Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth can effortlessly be analyzed by testing patients’ breath tests for levels of hydrogen, methane, or both. This is known as Bacterial Overgrowth Breath test. In the wake of ingesting a substrate parcel, the patient produces breath tests like clockwork finished a 3-hour time frame.

Tests are then sent to Laboratories. Investigation of the examples yields information on the creation of the focused on gases as the stomach related process continues. The diagram delivered utilizing this information gives key pointers of the presence/degree of SIBO. The chart is an unmistakable and justifiable apparatus that doctors may impart to patients in looking into their test outcomes.


Not at all like the digestive organ, the small digestive tract does not have a high number of microbes. At the point when there is an excessive number of microscopic organisms in the small digestive tract, these creatures go through the supplements that would somehow or another be retained into the body. A man with little gut bacterial abundance may become malnourished as an outcome.

  •  Conditions that can prompt abundance of microorganisms in the small digestive tract include:
  •  Difficulties of maladies or surgery that make pockets or blockages in the little intestine. Crohn’s the disease is one of these conditions.
  •  Ailments that prompt development issues in the little inside, such as diabetes and scleroderma
  •  Imune deficiencies such as AIDS or immunoglobulin inadequacy
  •  short gut syndrome caused by the surgical evacuation of part of the small digestive tract
  •  Surgical methods that make a circle of the small digestive tract where overabundance microscopic organisms can develop. An illustration is a Billroth II kind of stomach expulsion (gastrectomy).

 Side effects

  • Stomach totality
  • Stomach agony and spasms
  • Swelling
  • The looseness of the bowels (generally watery)
  • Gassiness
  • Different indications may include:
  • Greasy stool
  • Weight reduction

How to get ready for the SIBO Breath Testing?

There is a 24-hour readiness period before taking the Bacterial Overgrowth Breath test.the initial 12 hours require a particular eating routine, and the most recent 12 hours require a total fasting period; be that as it may, you may brush your teeth.


 Would small be able to intestinal bacterial excess be dealt with?

 Truly. Once bacterial excess has been analyzed, a health expert can utilize a proper anti-microbial regimen to destroy the microorganisms, calming the side effects. Treatment would then be able to start on the fundamental causes to shield abundance from repeating.


Uses of Lactulose Hydrogen Breath Test

Hydrogen breath test or HBT is very useful for diagnosing patients suffering from carbohydrate intolerance, such as lactose and fructose malabsorption, and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). As such HBT is challenging the quantitative culture of jejuna aspirate methodology, typically employed for diagnosing SIBO. This is primarily because of the non-invasive nature of HBT. Also, HBT is far simpler than that of quantitative culture of jejuna aspirate methodology used as the gold standard for diagnosing SIBO.

There are two types of HBT, glucose hydrogen breath test and Lactulose Hydrogen Breath Test. The uses of HBT are stated in the following section.


There are three main purposes for which a glucose or lactulose hydrogen breath test can be used. These are:

Fructose Malabsorption

For checking a patient for Fructose Malabsorption, first of all a base reading of hydrogen levels in the breath is collected. Then a small amount of fructose is given to the patient. Subsequent readings are taken every 15, 30 or 60 minutes gap for about 2 to 3 hours. The test is based on the fact that when the given sugar, fructose, is failed to be absorbed by the patient, then the bacteria metabolize and gives off either methane or hydrogen indicative of the patient’s inability to absorb fructose.

Lactose Malabsorption

Lactulose hydrogen breath test is used for checking a patient for Lactose Malabsorption. Before starting the test, a base reading of hydrogen levels in the patient breath is collected. Thereafter, the patient is given about 20-25 grams pure lactose. Recordings are then collected every 15, 30 or 60 minutes interval for about 2 to 3 hours. The final results could suggest one of the three things:

siboThe patient is a lactose malabasorber if the hydrogen levels of the lactulose hydrogen breath test comes out to be more than 20 ppm (parts per million)

The patient is not a lactose malabsorber but prone to Lactose Malabsorption if the patient produces methane levels above 12 ppm

The patient is healthy if the patient produces both good levels of hydrogen and methane with a mean value of over 15 ppm.

Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO)


Also known as small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SBBOS), the patient suffering from SIBO is either given a challenge dose of dextrose (a type of glucose) or lactulose, 75 to 100 grams and 10 grams respectively. The first baseline breath sample is collected immediately, while subsequent samples are collected for 3 to 5 hours with regular intervals of 15 to 20 minutes.
sibo-head-textPatients that produce about 20 ppm of hydrogen and/or methane in the first 2 hours, followed by a much larger peak afterwards is considered a positive diagnosis for a lactulose hydrogen breath test. The response is also known as a biphasic pattern. As lactulose is not absorbed by the digestive system, it can determine the distal end bacterial overgrowth. Further treatment is based on the results of the lactulose hydrogen breath test.


3 Popular Types of Female Hormone Test


Hormone balance is very important for maintaining a good level of health in women across all age groups. There are several types of female hormone test that helps in assessing whether a female has the right levels of various hormones or not. Out of the various options, following list enumerates 3 of the most popular types of female hormone tests:

hormoe-test-kits in biohealthlab

Saliva Testing

Undoubtedly, one of the most popular forms of hormone testing in females is the saliva testing. Available to physicians for almost a decade now, saliva testing has been consistently used in clinical research for over 3 decades. Moreover, several health insurance companies like Medicare allow reimbursement options to those on tight budgets.

With several years of research and clinical practice combines, saliva testing has been established as the most accurate measurement of Cortisol, DHEA, Estrogen, Progesterone, and Testosterone. Several clinics and medical institutions rely on saliva testing for successfully carrying out an accurate female hormone test.

Hormone Saliva testing

However, saliva testing is not much helpful in cases where women take hormones in a transmucosal or sublingual form. This is because these forms of hormone delivery increase the hormonal levels in the salivary glands, which results in saliva levels too high than the original hormonal levels.

Serum/Blood Testing

Another effective and famous method of female hormone test is serum or blood testing. A blood sample from the women under hormone testing is drawn,and a portion of the sample is used for measuring various hormone levels. Most of the serum tests measure the level of free hormone, the level of total hormone or a combination of the two.

Unfortunately, there are several disadvantages of serum testing. For instance, the results of serum testing are often inconsistent. Especially, when the value indicated falls in the low-normal range. Moreover, blood testing is less helpful for monitoring women using transdermal forms of hormone intakes.


Blood Testing

Different serum hormone tests define the normal, or healthy, therange of hormones distinctively, which is one of their leading disadvantages. In several scenarios, women may confound why they continue to experience the symptoms of hormone imbalance even when the test results show normal levels of hormones.

FSH (Follicle-Stimulating Hormone) Testing

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone or FSH is yet another type of female hormone test. This type of hormone testing procedure is primarily used for determining the hormonal status of premenopausal women experiencing hot flashes and mood changes. Though in some cases only one blood sample is collected, usually the blood sample is drawn 3 times.

If a hormonal imbalance is detected post an FSH test, then steps are taken immediately to correct the imbalance. This can significantly help in relieving faster from unwanted symptoms and prevent progression to certain diseases.


The FSH test, howsoever, can’t be used as a precise measure of sex steroid hormone production or as an indication of the reproductive status. This is because the levels of FSH fluctuates greatly during the decade before menopause.

Stool Analysis Test: Tips for Collecting and Understanding of Results

A stool test is a means of analyzing the fecal matter in order to diagnose the presence or absence of some specific medical conditions. Many times, patients suffering from persistent stomach problems are prescribed for a stool analysis test by doctors. However, there are several other symptoms that make doctors recommend the test. These are:

  • Diarrhea lasting for several days
  • Fever
  • Nausea
  • Throwing up

In addition to those mentioned above, a concerned doctor might be more involved when:

  • You are having a weakened immune system functions
  • You have eaten contaminated food or water
  • You have travelled outside the country or away from your hometown
  • Symptoms are severe in intensity

stool analysis test

The Stool Test Sample

Doctor will provide you a special container to bring a sample of your poop for diagnosis. Sometimes, an additional urine sample might also be required along with a sample of your feces. Containers given for collecting the sample might come with a label highlighting your name and date of birth.

Tips While Collecting Sample for a Stool Analysis Test

Follow these tips while collecting a sample of your poop for the stool test:

  • Don’t Use your Hands – You need to use a disposable small spoon or a spatula to place the poop sample inside the container.
  • Don’t Overfill the Container – It’s not a good idea to overfill the container with poop because only a small amount of poop, resembling the size of a walnut is required.
  • Ensure the Poop Doesn’t touch the Inner Surface of the Toilet – If your poop touch the inner surface of the toilet then it could pick up additional germs that might not belong to you.
  • Place the Container inside a sealed plastic Bag – Once you’ve successfully filled the container with you poop, place it inside a plastic bag and seal it.
  • Use something to catch your Poop – If your stool isn’t watery or loose then you could also spread some newspaper or plastic wrap over the toiler rim.
  • Wash your Hands Properly–After you’ve successfully collected the poop sample, wash your hands properly with soap and clean water.

How Long you Need to Wait?

Once you deposit your sample to the lab, it is smeared inside a dedicated plate. It helps in the growth of bacteria to be identified, if any, later. Later, it is observed by placing it under a microscope. Typically, you might need to wait for 1 or 2 days for getting the results of the stool analysis test.

What the Results Mean?

The results of your stool test can be one of the any two mentioned below:

  1. Negative – This means that the test is perfectly normal. No germs were found in the poop and you are free from any kind of infection.
  2. Positive – Your feces is infected by some kind of germ, bacteria or virus. Prescription will be based on the type of infection.


6 Most-Used Female Hormone Saliva Test Kit Types

Introduction to the Hormone Saliva Test Kit

Even though there are several ways to measure female hormones, the preferred way of doing so is by means of saliva. Inspecting hormonal levels using an apt hormone saliva test kit assists in assessing present level of hormones as well as checking whether the hormone balancing regimen is working or not.

Now, distinct types of hormone saliva test kit helps in determining different types of female hormones. As a matter of fact, there are several of them used for diagnosing hormonal levels in different medical conditions. Here is the list of 6 most commonly used hormonal saliva test kits for measuring female hormones.

hormoe test kit

  1. Saliva Profile I

    Used early in the morning, saliva profile I hormone saliva test kit helps in assessing most important adrenal and sex hormones. It helps in assessing 5 hormones, which are:

  • AM (morning) Cortisol (C1)
  • DHEA-S (DS)
  • Estradiol (E2)
  • Progesterone (Pg)
  • Testosterone (T)

2. Saliva Profile II

Used most notably for assessing adrenal function, saliva profile II test provides insights into all 5 hormones provided by saliva profile I, in addition to one more hormone. Various hormones analyzed by saliva profile II hormone saliva test kit are:

  • AM (morning) Cortisol (C1)
  • DHEA-S (DS)
  • Estradiol (E2)
  • Progesterone (Pg)
  • PM (night) Cortisol
  • Testosterone (T)

3. Saliva Profile III

Saliva profile III provides the most comprehensive assessment of the various adrenal and sex hormones. The test, most notably, adds 3 Cortisol tests in order to provide complete evaluation of the diurnal adrenal function. Various hormones assessed by saliva profile III test are:

  • AM (morning) Cortisol (C1)
  • DHEA-S (DS)
  • Estradiol (E2)
  • Evening Cortisol (C3)
  • Noon Cortisol (C2)
  • Progesterone (Pg)
  • PM (night) Cortisol
  • Testosterone (T)

4. Estrogen Dominance

In the medical condition of Estrogen Dominance, estrogen levels are much higher than what they should be in relative to the progesterone levels. The estrogen dominance hormone saliva test kit assists in evaluating hormones:

  • Estradiol (E2)
  • Progesterone (Pg)

Estradiol (E2) is the most potent estrogen found in the human body. In addition to measuring the levels of estrogen hormones, Estrogen Dominance test also provides important ratio-based relation between estradiol and progesterone.

5. Hormone Trio

Hormone Trio hormone saliva test kit helps in assessing major reproductive hormones in females as well as men. The relative ratio of each of the three hormones evaluated by Hormone Trio test is critical to the human health. The three reproductive hormones assessed by the saliva test are:

  • Estradiol (E2)
  • Progesterone (Pg)
  • Testosterone (T)


6. AM/PM Cortisol

The AM/PM Cortisol hormone saliva test kit is commonly used for diagnosing hormonal imbalance in females suffering from morning or evening fatigue, situational stress, or sleep disorders. The hormones evaluated by the saliva test are:

  • AM (Morning) Cortisol (C1)
  • PM (Night) Cortisol (C4)

How SIBO Breath Test used to Diagnose Bacterial Overgrowth in Small Intestine

Small intestine bacterial overgrowth can be very harmful if not diagnosed early. The reason behind a bacterial overgrowth in the intestinal region can be anything from diverticulitis to neurological and muscular diseases. Due to the inadequate movement of the intestinal muscles, the digested food cannot pass to the large intestine properly. This is why, the natural bacterial flora, present in the larger intestinal zones, can be seen flourishing in the small intestine. The diagnosis of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) can lead to a more complicated problem. Sometimes, due to irritable bowel syndrome or fasting, the bacteria migrate and start feeding on the remaining glucose available in the small intestine. The best way to identify bacterial overgrowth is via a SIBO Breath Test.

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The process of breath test

The bacteria produce hydrogen or methane while consuming glucose, lactose, etc. During a breath test, the concentration of these gases is measured and compared with the permissible line. Depending on the contemporary level, the diagnosis is done. The SIBO Breath Test is of two different types.

Lactulose breath test

Lactulose can only be digested by a particular strain of bacteria present in our gut. A patient is fed with a lactulose drink. If he is lactulose intolerant or suffering from bacterial overgrowth in the distal part of small intestine, he will produce a copious amount of hydrogen or methane.

Glucose breath test

Glucose is absorbed within the first one meter of the small intestine. If bacterial overgrowth is present in the latter portion then it can be easily identified with the elevated amount of methane or hydrogen in the breath of the individual.

Non-invasive test for SIBO

SIBO Breath Test is the most secure non-invasive test to learn more about a bacterial overgrowth. On diagnosis, further steps can be taken. The test takes one to three hours but does not involve any painful procedure.